StartValue ChainReciclaje y valorización materialApplications of recycled tyres

 

Recycling

 

Synthetic turf infill

Synthetic turf sports pitches are among the biggest users of granulated rubber, which makes the pitches more comfortable and safer for players and reduces water consumption considerably.

There are two ways to use granulate in synthetic turf pitches:

  Size Amount Used
Synthetic fibre infill with sand 0.5 – 2.5 mm 10-18 Kg /m2
Shock Absorption Layer 2-4 mm


Material used: GR1 and GR2.


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Safety flooring and children's playgrounds

The construction of children's playgrounds is governed by regulations that include compliance with safety parameters set out in standard UNE EN 1177. The use of granulate helps prevent injuries to very young children and affords greater security to older ones.
The flooring is made using a majority of rubber granulate together with binders and special paint which make these play areas attractive and safe.

The ELT granulate used is free of steel and textiles and with conventional sizes of 2 - 4 mm, or 4 - 8 mm for lower layers.

Material used: GR2 and GR3.

 

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Asphalt mixes

Asphalt mixes modified with tyre powder (directly or using bitumens made with powder), have considerably enhanced properties and improved performance.

The improvements achieved relate to a reduction in road surface cracking and a longer road service life, in addition to the safety improvements that come with the use of open-graded or drainage mixes.

The material used is tyre powder less than 0.8 mm in size.

Material used: Powder.


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Ornamental Applications

Materials from scrap tyres are also common in gardens and roundabouts.

The material used in this is case is CHIP, which undergoes a special pigmentation process.

In addition to its ornamental role, the use of the material reduces watering requirements.

Material used: CHIP

 

Footwear soles

Rubber has been used in footwear soles for a long time both in traditional footwear-making in specific parts and by adding fine powder to rubber formulations, although this is limited to dark mixes due to the incorporation of carbon black.

Material used: Powder, whole grooved ELT.


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Manufacture of rubber pieces

There are many rubber pieces on the market that are made using tyre rubber . The recycled rubber obtained from tyres in the form of tyre powder can be used as reinforcement in rubber mixes or to make whole rubber pieces.

Material used: Powder, GR1 and GR2.


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Noise Barriers

Noise barriers or acoustic screens are a remedial solution designed to reduce the noise given off by major noise sources.
The high vibration absorption capacity of ELT granulate and its high resistance to climatic agents make it an ideal material for noise barrier panels.

Material used: GR1, GR2.

 

Racing circuit crash barriers

Tyres have a high energy absorption capacity and are extremely weather-resistent. For these reasons they are used as collision barriers on ships and quaysides and as crash barriers in motor racing circuits.

The tyres used must undergo prior selection before being placed and stacked as a tyre barrier, in compliance with the rules laid down by motor sport's governing body (FIA) in its Guidelines Issue 6.3/Article 5.2.4.

Material used: Whole ELT

 


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Breakwater

Thanks to the combination of various effects arising from the shape, structure and arrangement of tyres on a suitable structure, tyres can be used to build systems to reduce the height of waves in interior waters or in open sea with moderate breakwater needs.

Material used: Whole tyres of different sizes.


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Civil Engineering

 

Embankment lightweight fill

Shred from ELT can be used as lightweight material to fill embankments on soils with low load-bearing capacity.
For applications of this type, the reference standard is ASTM D6270–08 “Standard Practice for Use of Scrap Tires in Civil Engineering Applications” which describes the conditions for using ELT shred in civil engineering applications. The following design and quality parameters have been established:


- Embankment geometry, distribution of the ELTs, and soil.
- ELT shred quality in terms of size, maximum content of free and exposed steel, and content of inappropriate materials.


Material used: SCE

 


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Surface lining for water storage and infiltration reservoirs

Whole ELTs can be used in the building of reservoirs for water infiltration (to maintain the water cycle) and for water storage (reusing the stored water for other purposes).
The basic structural component consists of whole tyres which are placed in homogeneous layers to prevent sinking and to guarantee an even load distribution across the entire structure.


Material used: Whole NFU

 


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Construction of embankment walls

ELTs can be used instead of conventional construction materials (concrete, stone) to build embankment walls to prevent water erosion.
The key to proper functioning is to ensure the wall is homogeneous and even.
The tyres help prevent subsidence, with the added advantage that they allow vegetation to grow. They blend in with the surroundings while also simplifying installation and reducing construction costs..


Material used: Whole NFU

 


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Landfill engineering applications

The law allows tyres to be used in landfills as long as they are used in civil engineering applications. Whole and shredded tyres may be used in the following applications:


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Protection of impermeable lining

Whole tyres can be used to protect the geomembrane in the cell bottom and sidewalls from possible perforation and thus guarantee the impermeability of the landfill. They also reduce the impact of the mass of waste dumped in the cell and facilitate the collection of leachates on the sidewalls.
The main advantage of the ELTs is their high structural stability on all types of slope.


Material used: Whole NFU

 

 

Drainage material

The high conductivity of ELT shreds affords excellent drainage possibilities. The material can be used to build different structural layers in landfills:

 

- Drainage layer in landfill bottoms.
- Surface water harvesting layer.


In some cases with the added advantage of reducing the load inside the mass of waste.


Material used: SCE or LARGE

 

 

Biogas extraction

In this case the high porosity of the shredded tyres serves two main goals: firstly directing the biogas generated towards the suction pipe thanks to the high proportion of spaces; secondly, the shreds' high capacity to absorb the downward movements of the waste in the landfill helps prevent fractures in the evacuation tube which often render large extraction sections useless in the landfills.


Material used: MEDIUM

 

 

Wall backfill

Currently an application in many countries, ELTs in wall backfill cushion the impact of the pressure exerted on the wall. An additional advantage is that they increase the runoff water evacuation capacity.


Material used: SCE or LARGE

 

 

Energy recovery

 

Substitute fuel

The high calorific value (7500 Kcal/kg), which is higher than for coal, makes it an ideal fuel for industrial plants with high energy consumption, such as cement kilns. Using end of life tyres as a fuel source is a way of harnessing the thermal energy of the solid recovered fuel (SRF) produced from the tyres.

In addition to energy, iron for clinker formation is produced by this process. The ELT may be shredded or whole depending on the type of facility.

 

The composition of the ELT can be highly advantageous both for the cement industry and for the environment for the following reasons:

  • Low humidity content compared to other fuels. For this reason there is no need for a drying process prior to furnace entry.
  • Low sulphur content, thus leading to lower SOx emissions than conventional fuels.
  • Lower computable CO2 emissions owing to the renewable origins of the tyre's natural rubber content. Between 22% and 34% of the tyre's carbon content is from biogenic sources, which are neutral in terms of CO2 emissions.


Material used: SMALL, MEDIUM and CHIP.


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